Man and his endangered home

The British artist

William Turner was born on the 23d of April in 1775 in London. He started to sell his works when he was a child. Being 14 years old he became a student of the academy of art in London. Until he was 25 years old Turner was painting only watercolors landscapes. Ten of his watercolor works were at the exhibition in the academy. Turner always had lots of works. Once he had to create 60 paintings for different people. Gradually, he started to use oil painting. When he was 27 he was chosen a member of the Royal Academy of Arts. Turner travelled a lot. He was in Paris, where he was observing works of popular masters in Louvre. He also was in Switzerland. He made there about 400 sketches. Turner was using Swiss motifs during all his life. He opened his own gallery where he showed his works. Then he moved closer to the Thames with his father and these lots of his works about river appeared. Turner became a professor. His creative style was becoming freer and more natural. After his work in Italy he started to pay attention to colors and shades. His own genre always was landscape. And Turner demonstrated a real talent as a colorist in his landscapes. Turner’s works of last ten years seem to be so different that sometimes critics can’t believe that they belong to the brush of only one artist. Art was always Turner’s passion. He wasn’t married and didn’t have children. He liked loneliness. Curiously his last neighbors didn’t know that the elderly man who lived next to them was a popular artist. During the last years of his life Turner came to vernissage but didn’t show any of his works. He died because of an old illness on the 19th of December in 1851. Turner left a huge fortune and he was buried in the Cathedral of St. Paul in London. Turner is the author of about 5000 oil paintings. He left the majority of his works to English people ad now they are exhibited in the Tate Gallery in London. The main place in his art belongs to the picture “Ulysses deriding Polyphemus”. Turner took the content of his painting from Homer’s Odyssey. In the picture we can see how Odyssey or Ulysses and his crew are coming home after their unpleasant meeting with the Cyclop Polyphemus. This is a landscape. In the picture we can see the Odyssey sheep in the sea. But in my point of view, the main role belongs not only to the sheep but also to the sky and to the sea. There are lots of details which make this picture finished and connect it with history. For example the shadow above the sheep is Polyphemus. Turner shows him as a big heavy cloud over the ship. The second thing is a cavalry next to the sun. According to Greek mythology the movement of the sun is similar to the riding Apollo across the sky. Next to the ship in the water we can see some strange figures. They are water nymphs. They are accompanying the ship. On the sheep we can see Odyssey and lots of people who are praising him because he won the Cyclop. Turner is a brilliant colorist. He managed to capture all colors and shade. When I look at this picture I see a lifelike sunrise, the sun is reflected in the sea. The clouds in different colors and shades. The picture is painted in warm colors. The dominating are beige, brown, white and yellow. The shapes and colors echo with each other. I like the painting and I agree with the people who think that this is a masterpiece of turner’s work. In my opinion he is one of the most talented artists because his landscapes are incredibly lifelike. He expressed all his feelings and emotions with colors’ help and it made this painting really amazing.

Photography

I`d like to tell you about the new type of art. It is called photography. Sometimes it is more helpful and unreal then art. Because it was found in 1839 and since this year it develops. You can take a photo in a moment and of course print it easy. It has a lot of colors and shades. Now it is really popular and it is used in different spheres of our life. So people can use it in journalism, fashion, history, biology, advertising and so on. People have always argued a lot about this type of art. Some people think, that the camera`s ability to capture every detail would put an end to the painting. Another people find the photography commonplace, because the nature looks machine-made. So it is personally to everyone. But I`m interested in photography. As I think, the camera is a thing that can change a man at all. Or can make the nature brighter and unforgettable. It is a thing that makes our memories. It is a really many-sided thing. When I travel, I make a lot of photos. I`m not a professional photographer, but I think I make photos good. And as for me my best snapshot I made in San-Francisco in USA. There is a famous bridge that is called «Golden gate». So I made a photo of this view. There is the red bridge in a mist. It is really exciting. So when I see this photo I remember this moment. I think that photos are an integral part of our lives. So photography can be both a hobby and a part of the memory. I am fond of photography.

Mythology

Even today mythology is very popular. When people are looking for some explanation of any phenomena or when they need any advice, they usually find the answer in different Greek myths. Myth is not only a story or something from history; myth is a very interesting and remarkable thing. Since early childhood, my mum told me myths. And so she gave me some idea about the world, the man`s place in it, about the love and God and the origin of some things. In Greek and Roman mythology Gods have different names and responsibilities. For example, Zeus or Ju`peter is the father of the Gods. He is the god of the sky. His wife`s name is Hera. She is the goddess of the family and marriage. Apollo is the god of the music and so on. I`d like to tell you the myth about the Ariadne`s thread. On the island of Crete King Minos in his famous palace called Labyrinth kept the creature which was half-bull, half-man - the Minotaur. Every nine years, the Athenians had to pay tax to the island of Crete - seven girls and boys to the Minotaur. The brave young man Theseus decided to save people and kill a terrible monster. And then a goddess of love, Afrodita, made the Ariadne to fall in love with Theseus. Once upon a time the creator of the deadly labyrinth Daedalus made ​​it so that if someone came in his palace he could not get back. Ariadne gave only thread by which it was possible to get out of the maze. Theseus tied the thread at the door and went to the Minotaur. Boy defeated the Minotaur and returned as a hero. Today mythology is popular as it was thousands years ago. And it is interesting for people of all ages.

Judaism

Religion is one of the most important things for people. Religions always will be unchanged. It is not a fashion. But I can`t say that the role of religion is increasing in modern life. It depends on the human life`s views, not from time. Judaism is the oldest of the world`s four great religions. It is around 3500 years old. It is monotheistic religion. It has 12 000 followers. This religion was found in Israel by Abraham, who is called the father of Jewish people. He is a symbol of trusting and obeying God. There is also other important figure - Moses. He gave the Jews Torah. It is the Jewish Holy Book. Followers read Torah four times a week. Jews always have a feast called Sukkot. It is the time when believers come together and read Torah. Also Moses was the leader of Jews who freed them from slavery in Egypt and protected them from the anger of the God. The main symbols of this religion are the star of David and menorah. The star of David is the six-pointed star. It is displayed on flag of Israel. Menorah is older. It is the seven-gold lamp, displayed on the blazon of Israel. Of course, an essential attribute for men is the kipa. It is a men`s headwear, a symbol of awe before God. The other symbol is 33 candles from Holy Sepulcher. They are sure to light up in the church but never disconnected. It symbolizes the age of Jesus Christ. Jewish worship is in synagogues. Synagogue might look like an ordinary building; you do not even notice it. Men and women sit separately. The Jewish leaders are called rabbis. This title gives the right to lead the community. The most holy place for Jews is Wailing Wall. People pray here all day and night. There is an ancient custom to put a note in the cracks between the stones of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem. In these letters people write requests to God for good luck, health and happiness. Holy Sepulcher is also the most sacred place, not only for Jews, but for people all over the world. The body of God is right here. It is unreal feeling. Of course, the stone, on which Jesus was crucified, is here. According to the legend, he still smells oil. The most important day of the week is the Sabbath. This day starts at sunset on Friday and continues until sunset on Saturday. During this day, people can`t do nothing, including turning on the light. This is a family day, which is followed by prayers and rituals. The next holiday is Rosh-Hashanah. It is a New Year in Israel. It lasts from September to October. The other Festival is Yom- Kippur. It is a day of atonement. Believers ask God for mercy for the next year. They eat donuts with feelings. Another holiday is Hanukkah. It stars in November and continues until December. It lasts 8 days. And it is associated with menorah. Every day is lit by a single candle. Status of women in Judaism and in the whole Israel is very high. Jew never raised his hand to his wife. So the church is not only a place, where you can pray or make a confession. The church is a place, where you are one step closer to God. Where you can relax and help yourself.

The Bible story

There are different religions in the world. All of them are popular. But now I`d like to tell you about the Christians Holy Book. It is the Bible. And the bible has a lot of different stories and secrets. There are a lot of Christian Festivals, for example, Lent, Easter and Christmas. Some of them came from events described in the Bible. So the Easter is a feast in honor of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. This holiday is associated with the end of the death and with lives. Now I`d like to tell you one of the famous best-remembered Bible stories. It is the Good Friday. So Jesus knew that his enemies were plotting his death. So during the supper he took the bread and broke it. Gave it to them and said that this was his body! And the wine was his blood. All the disciples said that they won`t betray him, but later when the soldiers took Jesus to the High Priest, they ran away in the darkness. So he explains them the value of life. And Christ gave people the hope of eternal life. Even today Bible stories are really popular. They teach and help people. They give us some idea about the God and another life. These things are really important and at the same time interesting.

Man and his endangered home

Environmental problem is one of the most popular life questions today. People think that for their lives everything would be enough. So, everything that will be later doesn`t disturb them. And for them only the period of their lives is important. As I think this statement is not correct, because we should think about the future of our world, about our children. Today, more people understand that our planet is in danger, that human activities disrupt the ecological balance. Nowadays our nature faces different kinds of problems. I`ll tell you about some of them. For example, water pollution. It is caused by emissions into water, which leads to the shortage of fresh water. As I think, we need to make laws to protect it and ban ocean dumping, especially of toxic and nuclear wastes. Of course, we should encourage waste recycling. Another big problem is deforestation. It is the result of the human activities. It leads to the disruption of ecological balances that includes the extinction of species. And the reasons of it are unsuitable conditions and climatic change. Of course, it causes land erosion and flooding. The third global problem is burying nuclear wastes and the radioactive pollution. As for me, it is very important. It has a great impact on health and population of the whole world. Because the removal of the radioactive wastes lasts 300-500 years. It can cause such diseases as cancer and mutations. Especially this situation can lead to the degradation of people and the end of the future generation. As you know, it is the biggest problem in our city. Because our government started the construction of the silicon plant. It is for processing of silicon. Our city suffers from it. People protest, organize meetings, but all in vain. Today our world is ruled by money. And our politicians don`t think about such things as health, children, other people and future. But ordinary people don`t help too. They waste dumping, started forest fires and so on. So, to solve this problem we need first of all to understand the value of life themselves. We need to understand that our planet has the limit of resources and we should spend them carefully. If we start right now, we will have a chance to save the world. We must act quickly before it becomes too late!

Earquakes

Earthquakes – are movement of the earth's surface by natural causes or sometimes artificial processes. Small bumps may also lead to the rise of the lava during volcanic eruptions. Each year on Earth is about a million earthquakes, but most of them are so small and appears at the bottom of the oceans, so they are unnoticed. There are a lot of types of earthquakes:

- Volcanic. It is the result of high voltage in the bowels of the volcano. The reasons for these earthquakes are lava, volcanic gas. This type doesn`t touch people.

- Technogenic. The mass of the water stored in reservoirs increase the pressure in the rocks with their weight. For example, the accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.

- Landslide. Such earthquakes are called avalanche, they have a localized and small power.

- Tectonic. The earthquake can be caused artificially by underground nuclear explosion.

Attributes of earthquakes:

- burning smell.

- flashes of light in the form of lightning.

- electrical sparking.

- blue glow.

Necessary actions in the earthquakes are to hide in a safe place, stay away far from windows and wait rescue. And after that, people need to make sure that there are no victims, if necessary, help them. Of course, entering any building check the sources of the life support. As you know, there are no clear ways to prevent the earthquakes. But nowadays people are working on it. But there is a special meter that detects and records all types of seismic waves. It gives an evidence and so people can predict the time and strength of earthquakes, but they can`t prevent and stop them.

A dream coming true

Our life is the collection of dreams. There are many people who have got a lot of aims and they realize them. I would like to tell you about the one of these people. He is the most famous cellist, pianist and conductor. He is Rostropovich Mstislav Leopoldovich. He was born in the family of cellist and pianist in Baku. Rostropovich began his musical studies in early childhood with his parents. So he really wanted to be a famous musician and he achieved it. When he was four years old, he had studied in Moscow at the Music College of Mussorgsky. So he started his carrier. Then he was known as a cellist, he has got the gold medal at the All-Union competition of musicians in Moscow. It was his first achievement. Thanks to international contracts and tours Rostropovich became known in the West. In his performance sounded all the repertoire of cello music, and many works have been written especially for him. Later Mstislav met the fulcrum and love of all his life. Her name was Galina Vishnevskaya. She greatly helped her husband to make a career and always was with him. Few years later Rostropovich and Vishnevskaya had to leave Russia. They were deprived of Soviet citizenship. They were accused of denying the rules of the USSR. Despite this the family struggled with the problems. In 1990 they returned in Moscow and began the new life. Thanks to the longing to music, Rostropovich made his life by his own plan and desire. It is really important to set a goal and achieve it all your life. He got his dream with great difficulty, but now all world know him. He was the permanent conductor and artistic director of the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, which under his leadership became one of the best orchestras in the USA. Rostropovich also known for his charity work, he helped poor and sick children. He had about 300 medals and prizes from such countries, as the USA, Italy, Austria, Spain, Germany, Japan, France, England, of course, Russia and so on. This man achieved his dream and everyone can do the same. So the main thing is always to remember that your dream will come true.

What makes people happy?

When do people feel pleased and satisfied? Happiness and hope are often compared with bright light or colors. There are different opinions about happiness. On the one hand there are some people who believe in the fact that there is no happiness because in our life there are too many difficulties and people need to solve their problems instead of doing something pleasant for themselves. But there is another opinion about it. Others think that man becomes satisfied and rewarded by his own achievements and success but it’s not enough because he can’t be happy when people around him are miserable. On the other hand in my opinion a man can be happy when his family when his family is good and their relationships are normal. Without any argues and misunderstanding. There’s no magic formula for happiness. But some of its aspects are universal. They are freedom, sound health, the scenes of belonging, an interesting occupation, a possibility to express oneself. All these subjects can make us really happy and satisfied. But at the same time, it’s also true that we can’t be happy all the time. Every day we run into troubles and some of them influence us very strongly. But each person acts differently in these situations. For instance, some people drag down and make things worse, others try to solve their problems but don’t choose a good way – the rant and rave instead of doing some extremely positive things to make their life better. And the last ones think that it’s happiness that inspires us to change the world. I couldn’t agree with this kind of people more. I strongly believe that each failure is some kind of a push to change our life and it’s a possibility to keep in mind that these are we who rule our life. To sum up, I’d like to say that our happiness depends only on ourselves and only we can decide to be or not to be happy. It’s very important to care about our friends and relatives. Every person deserves to be happy but he shouldn’t take everything for granted but do something for his life himself.

The happiest moment

In our life there are a lot of days. They are both negative and positive. But, usually, our memory keeps only good moments. And I would like to tell you about the happiest one in my life. It was my birthday. I was going to be 16 years old. All my life I dreamed about that birthday, when my sister would be with me. I didn`t even think about this. Because she is living in the other city for 9 years. Of course, it was really unexpected, when she arrived. But that is not the whole story. The culmination is that she made for me the best birthday in my life. She called all my friends, invited them at home, they cooked everything together for the party, the whole house was decorated with posters and balloons. It was really amazing and I was shocked, when I came home after school and realized that I didn`t dream. They stood in a circle and sing me a song. They filmed that on video, to be honest, it was really funny. We played twister, they gave me gifts and their own congratulations. I dreamed about such party very long. And my sister made it. I was on the cloud nine. Actually, I was pleased to see all friends and relatives and, of course, my lovely parents and boyfriend in this day. I shared my feelings with everyone I met. Because not everyone has such brother or sister. And what is truly good is that we love each other and support. And this is the base of everything. I really wish all people to have such good day. And to be as happy, as I was. Because only happy moments make our life better.


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